The Institute for Strategic and Innovative Technologies (ISIT) proposed a new type of superconducting (SC) pulsed transformer which will demonstrate the highest energy density of any pulsed power technology.  Phase I entitled “MACE Proof of Concept – Demonstrate Fundamental Physics” encompassed a six (6)-month effort to demonstrate the physics of a new type of high-energy-density SC pulsed transformer.  The proposed SC pulsed transformer provided a potential substantial reduction in size from the highest energy density state-of-the-art capacitor pulsed forming network (PFN) power source. 
Phase I identified six (6) Milestones that marked completion of key stages of the project. These milestones are listed below:

  1. Detailed project scoping
  2. Characterization of MACE fundamental physics and analytical validation of MACE concept
  3. Specification of MACE switching requirements
  4. Specification of MACE cryogenic requirements  
  5. Characterization of expected MACE performance using CAD models and software simulation
  6. Production of engineering designs and planning for Phase II



The main technical problem addressed by the MACE feasibility study was to analyze, model, and simulate whether the MACE Superconducting Pulsed Power Transformer concept cased on an annular (coaxial) primary/secondary coil assembly could repeatedly deliver a high percentage (>90%) of stored energy to an external load in under 10 milliseconds (ms). 


In Phase I, ISIT conducted a non-experimental feasibility study of the MACE concept, its methodology was as follows:

Literature Review – ISIT reviewed the existing literature for examples of Superconducting Pulsed Power Transformers. ISIT also reviewed the current literature for research into fast High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) Switches since the Phase II MACE Demonstration Unit relies on a fast HTS Switch for its operation.

Analytical Methods – Much of our preliminary analysis focused on the fundamental physics of the MACE concept, including using standard methods for solving anticipated electromagnetic, thermal, and structural performance of a MACE device using idealized geometries. 

CAD Modeling – ISIT used the CAD modeling software Autodesk Inventor 2017 to design a prototype device (“MACE Demonstration Unit”) that will be the focus of Phase II. Components of this CAD model were also used to numerically simulate electromagnetic performance of the device.

Circuit Simulation – The software package LT-Spice was used to validate initial assumptions and calculations of the MACE concept identified by analytical methods. 

Numerical Simulation of idealized 2D geometries – ISIT validated its preliminary analysis of MACE’s fundamental physics using the Finite Element Analysis software package FEMCAD. Specifically, ISIT examined how high frequency AC impacted the time-varying distribution of currents within a cross-section of the annular ring structure of the SPPT and the magnetic field surrounding and penetrating the structure. 

Numerical Simulation of modeled 3D geometries – A CAD model of the primary and secondary coil assembly of the MACE Demonstration Unit was imported into Maxwell 3D, a three-dimensional Finite Element Analysis Software Package. ISIT then examined time varying performance of the assembly (including, distributions of currents and fields, coupling efficiency, and device energy extraction) to validate our earlier preliminary analysis of MACE device performance.



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